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The Green500 List - November 2012

Heterogeneous Systems Re-Claim Green500 List Dominance

SALT LAKE CITY, UT - November 14, 2012 - The latest Green500 List was released today (http://www.green500.org/lists/green201211) and the top spots on the list have been taken over by machines that combine commodity processors with coprocessors or graphics processing units (GPUs) to form heterogeneous high-performance computing systems.

With all eyes on the new TOP500 number one system, Oak Ridge National Labs' Titan, it was a system belonging to a neighbor at the University of Tennessee that debuted at the top of the November Green500 List. The National Institute for Computational Sciences' Beacon system has set the new energy efficiency bar at nearly two-and-a-half billion floating-point operations per second (gigaflops) per watt. Employing Intel's Sandy Bridge series of Xeon central processing units (CPUs) and four of Intel's Xeon Phi coprocessors per node Beacon achieved a peak 112,200 gigaflops of performance running the LINPACK benchmark while consuming only 44.89 kW of power.

The Intel Xeon Phi--"Knights Corner"-- is a 22nm multicore coprocessor featuring the world's first 3D Tri-Gate transistors. Like its GPU counterparts, the Intel Xeon Phi resides on a PCI Express board that plugs into a machine's expansion slots.

Rounding out the top five systems are three other machines using GPU accelerators combined with traditional AMD or Intel CPUs. "Metaphorically, think of CPU-GPU systems operating like the human brain, where the CPU could be viewed as the left brain and the GPU as the right brain," says Dr. Wu Feng, founder of the Green500 List. "Each side of the brain is suited to process different types of tasks." In second place is the SANAM system from the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, an Intel CPU system that uses AMD's new FirePro S10000 GPU accelerators, and in third and fourth are the Titan and Todi systems by Cray that employ AMD Opteron CPUs and nVIDIA Tesla K20 GPU accelerators. In number five is the previous Green500 List number one system, IBM's Blue Gene/Q that uses PowerPC BQC CPUs. All of these systems are over two gigaflops per watt.

Overall, the performance of machines in the Green500 List has increased at a higher rate compared to power consumption. "That's why the machines' efficiencies are going up," says Feng. "We are more performance for the same amount of power." For machines based on commodity components--machines built with off-the-shelf components-- coprocessors and GPUs are attributing a great deal to the efficiency gains. So much so that they are keeping pace and in the latest list even outpacing purpose built systems like IBM's Blue Gene/Q. "Power consumption is still going up," says Wu, and that is still a concern.

The Green500 List has provided a ranking of the most energy-efficient supercomputers in the world since November 2007. For decades, the notion of "performance" has been synonymous with "speed" as measured in FLOPS. This particular focus has led to the emergence of supercomputers that consume egregious amounts of electrical power and produce so much heat that extravagant cooling facilities must be constructed to ensure proper operation. In addition, the emphasis on speed as the ultimate metric has caused other metrics such as reliability, availability, and usability to be largely ignored. As a result, there has been an extraordinary increase in the total cost of ownership (TCO) of a supercomputer.

The Green500 List

Listed below are the November 2012 The Green500's energy-efficient supercomputers ranked from 101 to 200.

Green500 Rank MFLOPS/W Site* Computer* Total Power
(kW)
101 751.10 Atomic Weapons Establishment WillowA - Bullx B510, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband QDR 182.00
102 749.45 Atomic Weapons Establishment WillowB - Bullx B510, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband QDR 182.00
103 741.67 Purdue University Carter - Cluster Platform 3000 SL6500, Xeon E5 (Sandy Bridge - EP) 8C 2.60GHz, FDR Infiniband 252.00
104 741.06 National Supercomputing Center in Jinan Sunway Blue Light - Sunway BlueLight MPP, ShenWei processor SW1600 975.00 MHz, Infiniband QDR 1,074.00
105 738.73 Norwegian University of Science and Technology SGI Altix X, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband FDR 537.00
106 732.53 Super Computer Center in Guangzhou Tianhe-1A Guangzhou Solution - NUDT YH MPP, Xeon X56xx (Westmere-EP) 2.93 GHz, Proprietary 289.00
107 731.92 Sandia National Laboratories Chama - Xtreme-X GreenBlade GB512X, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband QDR 453.60
108 722.25 SGI SGI Altix X, Xeon E5-2690 8C 2.900GHz, Infiniband FDR 129.00
109 718.12 Universitaet Frankfurt LOEWE-CSC - Supermicro Cluster, QC Opteron 2.1 GHz, ATI Radeon GPU, Infiniband 416.78
110 715.14 Poznan Supercomputing and Networking Center, Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry Rackable C1103-G15, Opteron 6234 12C 2.40 GHz, Infiniband QDR 125.50
111 712.37 Atomic Weapons Establishment Blackthorn - Bullx B510, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband QDR 446.40
112 689.56 Sandia National Laboratories Dark Sand - Appro Xtreme-X Supercomputer, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband QDR 388.80
113 688.10 PETROBRAS Grifo04 - Itautec Cluster, Xeon X5670 6C 2.930GHz, Infiniband QDR, NVIDIA 2050 365.50
114 682.74 Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA)/CCRT airain - Bullx B510, Xeon E5-2680 8C 2.700GHz, Infiniband QDR 260.00
115 678.14 Virginia Tech BlueRidge - Appro Xtreme-X Supercomputer, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband QDR 127.20
116 669.12 Petroleum Company x3650M4 Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband FDR 285.38
117 668.10 National Super Computer Center in Hunan Tianhe-1A Hunan Solution - NUDT YH MPP, Xeon X5670 6C 2.93 GHz, Proprietary, NVIDIA 2050 1,155.07
118 663.53 NOAA/Earth Science Research Laboratory/GSD sJet - Appro Xtreme-X Supercomputer, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband QDR 136.00
119 654.05 Amazon Web Services Amazon EC2 Cluster Compute Instances - Amazon EC2 Cluster, Xeon 8C 2.60GHz, 10G Ethernet 367.08
120 643.69 Kyoto University Laurel - Xtreme-X , Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband FDR 210.35
121 635.15 National Supercomputing Center in Tianjin Tianhe-1A - NUDT YH MPP, Xeon X5670 6C 2.93 GHz, NVIDIA 2050 4,040.00
122 634.01 Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation SAGA - Z24XX/SL390s Cluster, Xeon E5530/E5645 6C 2.40GHz, Infiniband QDR, NVIDIA 2090/2070 297.63
123 631.33 DOE/SC/Argonne National Laboratory Blues - Appro Xtreme-X Supercomputer, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband QDR 129.60
124 628.13 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Edge - Appro GreenBlade Cluster, Xeon X5660 6C 2.80 GHz, Infiniband QDR, NVIDIA 2050 160.00
125 627.82 Cray Inc. Crystal - Cray XC30, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Aries interconnect 234.67
126 627.82 CSC (Center for Scientific Computing) Cray Cascade, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Aries interconnect 337.33
127 627.82 Cray Inc. Ruby - Cray XC30, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Aries interconnect 344.67
128 627.82 Swiss Scientific Computing Center (CSCS) Piz Daint - Cray XC30, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Aries interconnect 344.67
129 603.73 CEA/TGCC-GENCI Curie thin nodes - Bullx B510, Xeon E5-2680 8C 2.700GHz, Infiniband QDR 2,251.00
130 590.23 Research Institute for Information Technology, Kyushu University PRIMEHPC FX10, SPARC64 IXfx 16C 1.848GHz, Tofu interconnect 282.43
131 582.00 NOAA/Oak Ridge National Laboratory Gaea C2 - Cray XE6, Opteron 6276 16C 2.30GHz, Cray Gemini interconnect 972.00
132 579.51 University of Oklahoma Boomer - Dell R620/R720, Xeon E5-2650 8C 2.000GHz, Infiniband QDR, NVIDIA 2070 158.10
133 562.27 International Fusion Energy Research Centre (IFERC), EU(F4E) - Japan Broader Approach collaboration Helios - Bullx B510, Xeon E5-2680 8C 2.700GHz, Infiniband QDR 2,200.00
134 554.65 Louisiana State University SuperMike-II - Dell PowerEdge C6220, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband QDR 200.00
135 521.96 HPC2N - Umea University Abisko - Supermicro H8QG6, Opteron 6238 12C 2.600GHz, Infiniband QDR 252.70
136 506.77 United Kingdom Meteorological Office Power 775, POWER7 8C 3.836GHz, Custom Interconnect 803.09
137 506.77 United Kingdom Meteorological Office Power 775, POWER7 8C 3.836GHz, Custom Interconnect 223.08
138 506.77 United Kingdom Meteorological Office Power 775, POWER7 8C 3.836GHz, Custom Interconnect 669.24
139 499.42 University of Tokyo/Human Genome Center, IMS HA8000-tc/HT225, Opteron 6276 16C 2.300GHz, Infiniband QDR 201.43
140 492.64 National Supercomputing Centre in Shenzhen (NSCS) Nebulae - Dawning TC3600 Blade System, Xeon X5650 6C 2.66GHz, Infiniband QDR, NVIDIA 2050 2,580.00
141 483.12 Universitaet Mainz MOGON - Saxonid 6100, Opteron 6272 16C 2.100GHz, Infiniband QDR 467.00
142 469.45 Texas Advanced Computing Center/Univ. of Texas Stampede - PowerEdge C8220, Xeon E5-2680 8C 2.700GHz, Infiniband FDR, Intel Xeon Phi 5,666.77
143 467.72 University of Bergen Hexagon - Cray XE6m-200, Opteron 6276 16C 2.300GHz, Cray Gemini interconnect 342.30
144 458.33 DOE/NNSA/LANL Cerrillos - BladeCenter QS22/LS21 Cluster, PowerXCell 8i 3.2 Ghz / Opteron DC 1.8 GHz, Infiniband 276.00
145 455.39 Government Sunway 4000H Cluster, Xeon X56xx (Westmere-EP) 3.06 GHz, Infiniband QDR 199.50
146 450.95 Leeds N8 N8 - Raackable Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband QDR 180.00
147 449.41 HWW/Universitaet Stuttgart HERMIT - Cray XE6, Opteron 6276 16C 2.30 GHz, Cray Gemini interconnect 1,850.00
148 444.35 DOE/NNSA/LANL Roadrunner - BladeCenter QS22/LS21 Cluster, PowerXCell 8i 3.2 Ghz / Opteron DC 1.8 GHz, Voltaire Infiniband 2,345.00
149 443.08 Calcul Canada/Calcul Québec/Université de Sherbrooke Rackable C2112-4G3 Cluster, Opteron 12 Core 2.10 GHz, Infiniband QDR 542.34
150 441.47 Slovak Academy of Sciences (SAV) Power 775, POWER7 8C 3.836GHz, Custom Interconnect 173.36
151 441.43 Environment Canada Power 775, POWER7 8C 3.84 GHz, Custom 462.30
152 441.43 Environment Canada Power 775, POWER7 8C 3.84 GHz, Custom 462.30
153 441.43 ECMWF Power 775, POWER7 8C 3.836GHz, Custom Interconnect 1,386.91
154 441.43 ECMWF Power 775, POWER7 8C 3.836GHz, Custom Interconnect 1,386.91
155 441.43 IBM Poughkeepsie Benchmarking Center Power 775, POWER7 8C 3.836GHz, Custom Interconnect 390.07
156 438.43 Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University (IMR) Hitachi SR16000 Model M1, POWER7 8C 3.836GHz, Custom 556.30
157 429.31 Government Sunway 4000H Cluster, Xeon X56xx (Westmere-EP) 2.93 GHz, Infiniband QDR 339.15
158 426.72 Los Alamos National Laboratory Mustang - Xtreme-X 1320H-LANL, Opteron 12 Core 2.30 GHz, Infiniband QDR 540.40
159 423.70 IBM Development Engineering DARPA Trial Subset - Power 775, POWER7 8C 3.836GHz, Custom Interconnect 3,575.63
160 421.74 Geoscience iDataPlex DX360M3, Xeon X5660 6C 2.80 GHz, Infiniband QDR 212.62
161 414.92 University of Southampton xSeries iDataPlex, Xeon E5645 6C 2.400GHz, Infiniband 228.22
162 405.38 Swiss Scientific Computing Center (CSCS) Monte Rosa - Cray XE6, Opteron 6272 16C 2.10 GHz, Cray Gemini interconnect 780.00
163 404.45 CLUMEQ - McGill University Guillimin - iDataPlex DX360M3, Xeon 2.66, Infiniband 337.00
164 400.68 Taiwan National Center for High-performance Computing ALPS - Acer AR585 F1 Cluster, Opteron 12C 2.2GHz, QDR infiniband 442.00
165 390.85 Institute for Molecular Science PRIMERGY RX300 S7, Xeon E5-2690 8C 2.900GHz, Infiniband QDR 299.60
166 378.77 EDF R&D Frontier2 BG/L - Blue Gene/P Solution 252.00
167 378.77 King Abdullah University of Science and Technology Shaheen - Blue Gene/P Solution 504.00
168 378.76 IDRIS Blue Gene/P Solution 315.00
169 368.62 Automotive BladeCenter HS22 Cluster, WM Xeon 6-core 2.93Ghz, Infiniband 240.41
170 368.62 Automotive BladeCenter HS22 Cluster, WM Xeon 6-core 2.93Ghz, Infiniband 240.41
171 366.58 DOE/NNSA/LLNL Dawn - Blue Gene/P Solution 1,134.00
172 363.98 DOE/SC/Argonne National Laboratory Intrepid - Blue Gene/P Solution 1,260.00
173 362.20 DOE/SC/LBNL/NERSC Hopper - Cray XE6, Opteron 6172 12C 2.10GHz, Custom 2,910.00
174 361.79 University of Edinburgh HECToR - Cray XE6, Opteron 6276 16C 2.30 GHz, Cray Gemini interconnect 1,824.93
175 359.65 Energy Company (A) HP ProLiant SL390s G7 Xeon 6C X5650, Infiniband 364.80
176 357.24 National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) Plasma Simulator - Hitachi SR16000 Model M1, POWER7 8C 3.836GHz, Custom Interconnect 708.20
177 355.58 Vienna Scientific Cluster VSC-2 - Megware Saxonid 6100, Opteron 8C 2.2 GHz, Infiniband QDR 430.00
178 354.32 Lockheed Martin BladeCenter HS22 Cluster (WM), Xeon X5650 6C 2.660GHz, Infiniband QDR 260.62
179 352.53 Ohio Supercomputer Center Oakley - Cluster Platform SL390s G7, Xeon X5650 6C 2.66GHz, Infiniband QDR, NVIDIA 2070 225.00
180 349.78 South Ural State University SKIF Aurora - SKIF Aurora Platform - Intel Xeon X5680, Infiniband QDR 287.04
181 347.89 E-Security - Selex Elsag Aurora - Eurotech Aurora, Xeon X5690 6C 3.470GHz, Infiniband QDR, NVIDIA 2090 317.71
182 342.92 Information Initiative Center, Hokkaido University Hitachi SR16000 Model M1, POWER7 8C 3.836GHz, Custom 354.60
183 330.98 Vestas Wind Systems A/S iDataPlex DX360M3, Xeon X5670 6C 2.93 GHz, Infiniband QDR 489.75
184 330.98 EDF R&D Ivanhoe - iDataPlex, Xeon X56xx 6C 2.93 GHz, Infiniband 510.00
185 330.98 IBM Development Engineering iDataPlex DX360M3, Xeon X5670 6C 2.93 GHz, Infiniband QDR 316.50
186 322.11 Moscow State University - Research Computing Center Lomonosov - T-Platforms T-Blade2/1.1, Xeon X5570/X5670/E5630 2.93/2.53 GHz, Nvidia 2070 GPU, PowerXCell 8i Infiniband QDR 2,800.00
187 314.31 Volvo Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c/SL250/ML350 Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband QDR 392.40
188 311.77 NASA/Ames Research Center/NAS Pleiades - SGI ICE X/8200EX/8400EX, Xeon 54xx 3.0/5570/5670/E5-2670 2.93/2.6/3.06/3.0 Ghz, Infiniband QDR/FDR 3,986.96
189 305.33 Electronics xSeries x3550M3 Cluster, Xeon X5650 6C 2.66 GHz, Infiniband QDR 251.10
190 305.33 Electronics xSeries x3550M3 Cluster, Xeon X5650 6C 2.66 GHz, Infiniband QDR 251.10
191 305.33 Government xSeries x3650M3 Cluster, Xeon X5650 6C 2.660GHz, Infiniband 302.81
192 305.33 Defence xSeries x3650M3 Cluster, Xeon X5650 6C 2.660GHz, Infiniband 334.06
193 297.44 National Institute for Computational Sciences/University o