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The Green500 List - June 2013

BLACKSBURG, Va., June 28, 2013 -- Today’s release of the Green500 List (http://www.green500.org/lists/green201306) shows that the top end of the list is again dominated by heterogeneous supercomputers, those that combine two or more types of processing elements together, such as a traditional processor or central processing unit (CPU) combined with a graphical processing unit (GPU) or coprocessor.

Two heterogeneous systems, based on NVIDIA’s Kepler K20 GPU accelerators, claim the top two positions and break through the three-billion floating-point operations per second (gigaflops or GFLOPS) per watt barrier. Eurora, located at Cineca, debuts at the top of the Green500 at 3.21 gigaflops/watt, followed closely by Aurora Tigon at 3.18 gigaflops/watt. The energy efficiency of these machines, manufactured by Eurotech, improves upon the previous greenest supercomputer in the world by nearly 30%. Two other heterogeneous systems, Beacon with an efficiency of 2.449 gigaflops/watt* and SANAM with an efficiency of 2.35 gigaflops/watt, come in at numbers 3 and 4 on the Green500. The former is based on Intel Xeon Phi 5110P coprocessors while the latter is based on AMD FirePro S10000 GPUs.

Rounding out the top five is CADMOS BlueGene/Q, which is based on a previously list-leading custom design of the IBM BlueGene/Q architecture with PowerPC-based CPU processors. In fact, the next swath of supercomputers down to No. 28 are dominated by IBM BlueGene/Q systems with one set at approximately 2.30 gigaflops/watt and another at approximately 2.18 gigaflops/watt. Overall, the greenest fifty systems are either heterogeneous systems, which incorporate accelerators (GPUs) or coprocessors, or custom BlueGene/Q systems. The exceptions are a pair of homogeneous systems at 40 and 41, which are the only homogeneous systems based on Intel’s new Ivy Bridge processors and three more at 45-47 based on Intel Sandy Bridge processors.

The current fastest supercomputer in the world, Tianhe-2, uses heterogeneous computing elements based on Intel Xeon Phi. It delivers 1.9 gigaflops/watt, which is commensurate with the majority of Xeon Phi systems that are ranked between No. 30 and 35, inclusive.

With the DARPA’s goal of an exascale supercomputer within a power envelope of 20 megawatts (MW), extrapolating Beacon, the previous No. 1 supercomputer on the Green500, to exascale results in a 408 MW machine. However, due to the improved efficiency of Eurora, this exascale power envelope comes down to 312 MW, a sizeable 24% drop in power consumption for an exascale machine -- a move in the right direction. Nevertheless, the electricity bills for such a system would still be more than 300 million U.S. dollars per year.

This 13th edition of the Green500 List also marks the Green500’s first use of new energy measurement methodologies developed in tandem with the Energy Efficient High Performance Computing Working Group, Top500, and The Green Grid. In addition to the current Green500 submission requirements, denoted as Level 1, the Green500 also accepts higher-precision measurements, denoted as Level 2 and 3. The Green500 received Level 2 and 3 submissions from several systems, including a superset of the Sequoia BlueGene/Q supercomputer at LLNL called Sequoia-25 and SuperMUC from LRZ. “While the higher quality measurements taken for these systems show lower energy efficiency, they provide a much better picture of the real-world costs of running each system as well as a more in-depth picture of how the system handles a Linpack run,” noted Wu Feng, founder of the Green500. “Additionally, the Sequoia-25 Level 1 submission includes the networking infrastructure, as required for higher levels.”

Since the launch of the Green500 in 2007, the energy efficiency of the highest-ranked machines on the Green500 has been improving much more rapidly than the mean and the median. For instance, while the energy efficiency of the greenest system improved by nearly 30%, the median improved by 14% and the mean by only 11%. “Overall, the performance of machines on the Green500 List has increased at a higher rate than their power consumption. That's why the machines' efficiencies are going up," says Feng. For commodity-based machines -- machines built with off-the-shelf components -- a great deal of the efficiency gains can be attributed to heterogeneous designs, i.e., using traditional CPUs along with GPUs or coprocessors. Such a design allows these systems to keep pace and in some cases even outpace custom systems like IBM’s Blue Gene/Q. "While the gains at the top end of the Green500 appear impressive, overall the improvements have been much more modest," says Feng. “This clearly indicates that there is still work to be done.”

The Green500 has provided a ranking of the most energy-efficient supercomputers in the world since November 2007. For decades, the notion of supercomputer "performance" has been synonymous with "speed" (as measured in FLOPS, short for floating-point operations per second). This particular focus has led to the emergence of supercomputers that consume egregious amounts of electrical power and produce so much heat that extravagant cooling facilities must be constructed to ensure proper operation. In addition, when there is an emphasis on speed as the ultimate metric, it often comes at the expense of other performance metrics, such as energy efficiency, reliability, availability, and usability. As a result, there has been an extraordinary increase in the total cost of ownership (TCO) of a supercomputer. Consequently, the Green500 seeks to raise the awareness in energy efficiency of supercomputing and to drive it as a first-order design constraint on par with speed.

ERRATA: We had a typo in the original release that reported 2.49 gigaflops/watt for the Beacon machine when it should have read 2.449 as it does now. The numbers for the MVS-10P at the Joint Supercomputer Center were revised and the rankings adjusted. The TOP500 data was used in lieu of submitted data for the MVS-10P machine causing the error in ranking. As a result the MVS-10P machine was moved from 34 to 30 in the rankings and the others adjusted to reflect the updated numbers.

The Green500 List

Listed below are the June 2013 The Green500's energy-efficient supercomputers ranked from 201 to 300.

Green500 Rank MFLOPS/W Site* Computer* Total Power
(kW)
201 272.96 Financial Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2680 8C 2.700GHz, 10G Ethernet 427.50
202 272.96 Financial Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2680 8C 2.700GHz, 10G Ethernet 578.70
203 272.96 Financial Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2680 8C 2.700GHz, 10G Ethernet 413.10
204 271.29 Financial Services (H) iDataPlex DX360M3, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 405.13
205 271.29 Financial Services (H) iDataPlex DX360M3, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 405.13
206 271.29 Financial Services (H) iDataPlex DX360M3, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 405.13
207 271.29 Financial Services (H) iDataPlex DX360M3, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 405.13
208 271.29 Financial Services (H) iDataPlex DX360M3, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 405.13
209 271.29 Financial Services (H) iDataPlex DX360M3, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 405.13
210 271.29 Financial Services (H) iDataPlex DX360M3, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 405.13
211 271.29 Financial Institution (P) iDataPlex DX360M4, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 376.88
212 271.28 Banking (M) xSeries x3650M4 Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 573.30
213 271.28 Financial Institution iDataPlex DX360M4, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 512.48
214 271.28 Financial Institution iDataPlex DX360M4, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 375.56
215 268.79 IT Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2680 8C 2.700GHz, 10G Ethernet 655.20
216 268.79 IT Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2680 8C 2.700GHz, 10G Ethernet 655.20
217 268.79 Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2680 8C 2.700GHz, 10G Ethernet 780.30
218 268.22 Cray Inc. Hera - Cray XE6, Opteron 6272 16C 2.1/2.2/2.3 GHz, Cray Gemini interconnect 467.90
219 267.02 IT Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 369.00
220 265.87 IT Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.60GHz, 10G Ethernet 533.70
221 265.30 IT Service Provider (D) Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 949.05
222 265.02 Compute Canada/WestGrid/University of Calgary Lattice - DL170/SL390 , Xeon E5649 2.53GHz/L5520 4C 2.26GHz, Infiniband QDR, NVIDIA 2070 410.16
223 264.19 Insurance Company Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 511.20
224 262.54 Semiconductor Company (F) Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 492.30
225 262.54 Semiconductor Company (F) Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 492.30
226 262.47 Manufacturing Company Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 597.60
227 262.47 Manufacturing Company Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 547.20
228 262.12 Universitaet Paderborn - PC2 OCuLUS (Owl CLUSter) - Clustervision CV-AIRE5, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband QDR 720.00
229 261.23 IT Service Provider (B) Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 660.15
230 260.64 Electronics BladeCenter HS22 Cluster (WM), Xeon X5650 6C 2.660GHz, Infiniband 402.41
231 260.64 Electronics BladeCenter HS22 Cluster (WM), Xeon X5650 6C 2.660GHz, Infiniband 402.41
232 260.12 IT Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 715.50
233 260.12 Electrionic Industry Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 646.20
234 260.07 IT Services Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 718.20
235 259.62 IT Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.60GHz, 10G Ethernet 740.70
236 259.60 IT Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.60GHz, 10G Ethernet 741.60
237 259.50 University of Bristol Bluecrystal Phase 3 - PowerEdge C8220, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband QDR 405.60
238 259.17 IT Services Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 763.20
239 259.17 IT Services Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 552.60
240 254.01 SciNet/University of Toronto/Compute Canada GPC - xSeries iDataPlex, Xeon E5540 4C 2.53GHz, Infiniband 1,030.00
241 253.71 IT Service Provider (D) Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 1,037.25
242 252.29 IT Service Provider (B) Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 1,108.80
243 252.18 Georgia Institute of Technology Keeneland - Cluster Platform SL250s Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband FDR, NVIDIA 2090 1,267.20
244 251.87 NOAA/Earth Science Research Laboratory/GSD Jet - Raytheon/Aspen Cluster, Xeon X5560/X5650 2.8/2.66 Ghz, QDR Infinband 502.25
245 251.58 IT Services Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2640 6C 2.500GHz, 10G Ethernet 639.23
246 251.58 IT Service Provider (D) Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2640 6C 2.500GHz, 10G Ethernet 484.65
247 250.83 Electrionic Industry Cluster Platform 3000 BL280c G6, Xeon X5670 6C 2.930GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 460.00
248 250.18 Electronics xSeries x3650M3 Cluster, Xeon X5650 6C 2.660GHz, Infiniband 502.58
249 250.18 Electronics xSeries x3650M3 Cluster, Xeon X5650 6C 2.660GHz, Infiniband 502.58
250 250.18 Electronics xSeries x3650M3 Cluster, Xeon X5650 6C 2.660GHz, Infiniband 502.58
251 250.17 Microsoft Windows Azure Faenov - Cluster Platform SL230s Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband QDR 604.80
252 245.63 IFPEN ENER110 - Bullx B510, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband FDR 453.60
253 245.59 Air Force Research Laboratory SGI ICE X, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband FDR 1,382.40
254 243.34 IT Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.60GHz, 10G Ethernet 450.00
255 243.34 IT Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.60GHz, 10G Ethernet 450.00
256 241.97 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Sierra - Dell Xanadu 3 Cluster, Xeon X5660 2.8 Ghz, QLogic InfiniBand QDR 688.94
257 240.45 VSC / Flemish Supercomputer Center Cluster Platform SL230s Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.60GHz, Infiniband FDR 633.60
258 240.05 Total Exploration Production SGI Altix ICE 8200EX, Xeon quad core 3.0 GHz 442.00
259 237.54 CSC (Center for Scientific Computing) Cluster Platform SL230s Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband FDR 690.00
260 237.51 Saudi Aramco PLCI+PLCH - PowerEdge M610 Cluster, Xeon X5670 6C 2.930GHz, Infiniband QDR 451.35
261 237.27 Clemson University Palmetto - PE1950/SF X2200/iDPx/IBM dx340/HP DL165 Intel 53xx/54xx 2.33, Opteron 2.3, E5410 2.33GHz Myrinet 10G 408.48
262 235.73 Karlsruher Institut f?r Technologie (KIT) Cluster Platform SL230s Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband QDR 489.60
263 235.46 Manufacturing Company Cluster Platform SL230s Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband FDR 994.80
264 235.41 Electronics xSeries x3650M4 Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 617.01
265 235.41 Electronics xSeries x3650M4 Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 617.01
266 235.41 Electronics xSeries x3650M4 Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 617.01
267 235.41 Service Provider xSeries x3650M4 Cluster, Xeon X5650 6C 2.660GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 513.22
268 235.41 Service Provider xSeries x3650M4 Cluster, Xeon X5650 6C 2.660GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 513.22
269 235.41 Financial Services (M) xSeries x3650M4 Cluster, Xeon E5-2680 8C 2.700GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 431.26
270 235.41 Engineering Company xSeries x3650M4 Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 488.71
271 235.41 Engineering Company xSeries x3550M3 Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 435.47
272 235.41 Engineering Company xSeries x3550M3 Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 435.47
273 235.41 Engineering Company xSeries x3550M3 Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 435.47
274 235.41 Engineering Company xSeries x3550M3 Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 435.47
275 235.40 Internet Service xSeries x3650M4 Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 583.31
276 235.40 Internet Service xSeries x3650M4 Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 583.31
277 235.40 Internet Service xSeries x3650M4 Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 583.31
278 235.40 Internet Service xSeries x3630 Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 436.24
279 235.40 Internet Service xSeries x3630 Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 436.24
280 235.40 Internet Service xSeries x3630 Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 436.24
281 235.40 Internet Service xSeries x3630 Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 436.24
282 235.40 Internet Service xSeries x3650M4 Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 608.59
283 235.40 Internet Service xSeries x3650M4 Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 608.59
284 235.40 Internet Service xSeries x3650M4 Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 608.59
285 235.40 Internet Service xSeries x3650M4 Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 608.59
286 235.40 Internet Service xSeries x3650M4 Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 608.59
287 235.40 Internet Service xSeries x3650M4 Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 608.59
288 235.40 Internet Service xSeries x3650M4 Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 608.59
289 235.40 Financial Securities iDataPlex DX360M4, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 413.93
290 235.40 Communications BladeCenter HS23 Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 530.84
291 235.40 Bank (J) BladeCenter HS23 Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 429.73
292 234.90 Government Cluster Platform SL230s Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband FDR 614.40
293 233.55 Banking Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2630 6C 2.300GHz, 10G Ethernet 520.43
294 232.38 Financial Services (H) BladeCenter HS22 Cluster (WM), Xeon L5640 6C 2.260GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 415.89
295 230.32 Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) BX900 Xeon X5570 2.93GHz , Infiniband QDR 831.00
296 230.11 US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) SGI Altix ICE 8200 Enhanced LX, Xeon Nehalem quad core 2.8 GHz 475.00
297 228.76 Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) Tera-100 - Bull bullx super-node S6010/S6030 4,590.00
298 227.88 Institute of Physical and Chemical Res. (RIKEN) RIKEN Intergrated Cluster of Clusters, Xeon X5570 2.93GHz, Infiniband DDR 429.78
299 227.46 Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA)/CCRT GENCI-CCRT-Titane - BULL Novascale R422-E2 477.00
300 226.33 Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 2,410.20

* Performance data obtained from publicly available sources including TOP500