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The Green500 List - June 2013

BLACKSBURG, Va., June 28, 2013 -- Today’s release of the Green500 List (http://www.green500.org/lists/green201306) shows that the top end of the list is again dominated by heterogeneous supercomputers, those that combine two or more types of processing elements together, such as a traditional processor or central processing unit (CPU) combined with a graphical processing unit (GPU) or coprocessor.

Two heterogeneous systems, based on NVIDIA’s Kepler K20 GPU accelerators, claim the top two positions and break through the three-billion floating-point operations per second (gigaflops or GFLOPS) per watt barrier. Eurora, located at Cineca, debuts at the top of the Green500 at 3.21 gigaflops/watt, followed closely by Aurora Tigon at 3.18 gigaflops/watt. The energy efficiency of these machines, manufactured by Eurotech, improves upon the previous greenest supercomputer in the world by nearly 30%. Two other heterogeneous systems, Beacon with an efficiency of 2.449 gigaflops/watt* and SANAM with an efficiency of 2.35 gigaflops/watt, come in at numbers 3 and 4 on the Green500. The former is based on Intel Xeon Phi 5110P coprocessors while the latter is based on AMD FirePro S10000 GPUs.

Rounding out the top five is CADMOS BlueGene/Q, which is based on a previously list-leading custom design of the IBM BlueGene/Q architecture with PowerPC-based CPU processors. In fact, the next swath of supercomputers down to No. 28 are dominated by IBM BlueGene/Q systems with one set at approximately 2.30 gigaflops/watt and another at approximately 2.18 gigaflops/watt. Overall, the greenest fifty systems are either heterogeneous systems, which incorporate accelerators (GPUs) or coprocessors, or custom BlueGene/Q systems. The exceptions are a pair of homogeneous systems at 40 and 41, which are the only homogeneous systems based on Intel’s new Ivy Bridge processors and three more at 45-47 based on Intel Sandy Bridge processors.

The current fastest supercomputer in the world, Tianhe-2, uses heterogeneous computing elements based on Intel Xeon Phi. It delivers 1.9 gigaflops/watt, which is commensurate with the majority of Xeon Phi systems that are ranked between No. 30 and 35, inclusive.

With the DARPA’s goal of an exascale supercomputer within a power envelope of 20 megawatts (MW), extrapolating Beacon, the previous No. 1 supercomputer on the Green500, to exascale results in a 408 MW machine. However, due to the improved efficiency of Eurora, this exascale power envelope comes down to 312 MW, a sizeable 24% drop in power consumption for an exascale machine -- a move in the right direction. Nevertheless, the electricity bills for such a system would still be more than 300 million U.S. dollars per year.

This 13th edition of the Green500 List also marks the Green500’s first use of new energy measurement methodologies developed in tandem with the Energy Efficient High Performance Computing Working Group, Top500, and The Green Grid. In addition to the current Green500 submission requirements, denoted as Level 1, the Green500 also accepts higher-precision measurements, denoted as Level 2 and 3. The Green500 received Level 2 and 3 submissions from several systems, including a superset of the Sequoia BlueGene/Q supercomputer at LLNL called Sequoia-25 and SuperMUC from LRZ. “While the higher quality measurements taken for these systems show lower energy efficiency, they provide a much better picture of the real-world costs of running each system as well as a more in-depth picture of how the system handles a Linpack run,” noted Wu Feng, founder of the Green500. “Additionally, the Sequoia-25 Level 1 submission includes the networking infrastructure, as required for higher levels.”

Since the launch of the Green500 in 2007, the energy efficiency of the highest-ranked machines on the Green500 has been improving much more rapidly than the mean and the median. For instance, while the energy efficiency of the greenest system improved by nearly 30%, the median improved by 14% and the mean by only 11%. “Overall, the performance of machines on the Green500 List has increased at a higher rate than their power consumption. That's why the machines' efficiencies are going up," says Feng. For commodity-based machines -- machines built with off-the-shelf components -- a great deal of the efficiency gains can be attributed to heterogeneous designs, i.e., using traditional CPUs along with GPUs or coprocessors. Such a design allows these systems to keep pace and in some cases even outpace custom systems like IBM’s Blue Gene/Q. "While the gains at the top end of the Green500 appear impressive, overall the improvements have been much more modest," says Feng. “This clearly indicates that there is still work to be done.”

The Green500 has provided a ranking of the most energy-efficient supercomputers in the world since November 2007. For decades, the notion of supercomputer "performance" has been synonymous with "speed" (as measured in FLOPS, short for floating-point operations per second). This particular focus has led to the emergence of supercomputers that consume egregious amounts of electrical power and produce so much heat that extravagant cooling facilities must be constructed to ensure proper operation. In addition, when there is an emphasis on speed as the ultimate metric, it often comes at the expense of other performance metrics, such as energy efficiency, reliability, availability, and usability. As a result, there has been an extraordinary increase in the total cost of ownership (TCO) of a supercomputer. Consequently, the Green500 seeks to raise the awareness in energy efficiency of supercomputing and to drive it as a first-order design constraint on par with speed.

ERRATA: We had a typo in the original release that reported 2.49 gigaflops/watt for the Beacon machine when it should have read 2.449 as it does now. The numbers for the MVS-10P at the Joint Supercomputer Center were revised and the rankings adjusted. The TOP500 data was used in lieu of submitted data for the MVS-10P machine causing the error in ranking. As a result the MVS-10P machine was moved from 34 to 30 in the rankings and the others adjusted to reflect the updated numbers.

The Green500 List

Listed below are the June 2013 The Green500's energy-efficient supercomputers ranked from 301 to 400.

Green500 Rank MFLOPS/W Site* Computer* Total Power
(kW)
301 225.17 IT Services Provider Cluster Platform SL230s Gen8, Xeon E5-2680 8C 2.700GHz, Infiniband QDR 499.20
302 225.03 University of Tokyo/Institute for Solid State Physics SGI Altix ICE 8400EX Xeon X5570 4-core 2.93 GHz, Infiniband 719.00
303 224.12 DOE/SC/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Olympus - Atipa Cluster, Opteron 6272 16C 2.100GHz, Infiniband QDR 456.00
304 223.83 Research Center Cluster Platform SL250s Gen8, Xeon E5-2660 8C 2.200GHz, Infiniband FDR, NVIDIA 2090 604.80
305 223.50 Grand Equipement National de Calcul Intensif - Centre Informatique National de l'Enseignement Suprieur (GENCI-CINES) Jade - SGI ICE 8200EX, Xeon E5450 4C 3.000GHz, Infiniband 1,064.00
306 222.61 Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2660 8C 2.200GHz, 10G Ethernet 567.00
307 221.95 Banking Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2660 8C 2.200GHz, 10G Ethernet 605.70
308 221.51 Automotive Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2660 8C 2.200GHz, 10G Ethernet 631.80
309 220.93 Banking (M) BladeCenter HS22 Cluster (WM), Xeon E5649 6C 2.530GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 441.66
310 220.93 Network Company BladeCenter HS22 Cluster (WM), Xeon E5649 6C 2.53 GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 454.21
311 220.60 Kyoto University Camphor - Cray XE6, Opteron 16C 2.50GHz, Cray Gemini interconnect 1,140.96
312 220.42 University of Southern California HPC - PowerEdge 1950/SunFire X2200/IBM dx340/dx360/HP SL160/DL165, Xeon/Opteron 2.3-2.67GHz, Myrinet 10G 680.06
313 219.71 Banking (M) Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2660 8C 2.200GHz, 10G Ethernet 738.90
314 219.40 IT Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2650 8C 2.000GHz, Infiniband QDR 578.70
315 217.54 Telecommunication Company Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2660 8C 2.200GHz, 10G Ethernet 867.60
316 217.46 IT Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2660 8C 2.200GHz, 10G Ethernet 872.10
317 215.53 KISTI Supercomputing Center TachyonII - Sun Blade x6048, X6275, IB QDR M9 switch, Sun HPC stack Linux edition 1,275.00
318 210.77 IT Services Provider Cluster Platform SL230s Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband QDR 1,104.00
319 210.77 IT Services Provider Cluster Platform SL230s Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband QDR 1,104.00
320 208.25 ERDC DSRC Cray XE6, Opteron 16C 2.500GHz, Cray Gemini interconnect 883.63
321 208.25 ERDC DSRC Garnet - Cray XE6, Opteron 16C 2.500GHz, Cray Gemini interconnect 1,530.58
322 208.25 Air Force Research Laboratory Raptor - Cray XE6, Opteron 16C 2.500GHz, Cray Gemini interconnect 3,240.80
323 206.98 ERDC DSRC Diamond - SGI Altix ICR 8200 Enh. LX, Xeon X5560 2.8Ghz 774.00
324 206.72 Energy Company Cluster Platform SL250s Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband QDR 1,401.60
325 206.72 Geoscience (P) Cluster Platform SL250s Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband QDR 1,363.20
326 206.72 Geoscience (P) Cluster Platform SL250s Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband QDR 1,344.00
327 203.64 Banking Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2650 8C 2.000GHz, 10G Ethernet 484.20
328 201.60 IT Service Provider HP DL360 Cluster, Xeon E5620 4C 2.400GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 501.60
329 201.60 IT Service Provider HP DL360 Cluster, Xeon E5620 4C 2.400GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 525.54
330 201.60 IT Service Provider HP DL360 Cluster, Xeon E5620 4C 2.400GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 506.16
331 201.44 University of Tokyo/Human Genome Center, IMS HA8000-tc/HT225, Opteron 6276 16C 2.300GHz, Infiniband QDR 499.41
332 200.99 IT Services Provider (D) Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2650 8C 2.000GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 657.00
333 200.82 Communications BladeCenter HS22 Cluster (WM), Xeon X5670 6C 2.930GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 487.23
334 200.34 Network Company Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2680 8C 2.700GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 598.50
335 200.34 Network Company Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2680 8C 2.700GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 598.50
336 197.82 Energy Company Cluster Platform SL230s Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 710.40
337 196.91 IT Services Provider Cluster Platform SL230s Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 576.00
338 196.91 IT Services Provider Cluster Platform SL230s Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 576.00
339 196.85 Government Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2650 8C 2.000GHz, 10G Ethernet 927.00
340 196.00 Financial Services (H) iDataPlex DX360M3, Xeon E5649 6C 2.53 GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 534.06
341 194.01 US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) MRAP - Cray XT5 SixCore, Opteron Six Core 6C 2.600GHz, XT4 Internal Interconnect 591.72
342 193.86 Energy Company Cluster Platform SL250s Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 1,917.60
343 192.94 IT Services Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 596.70
344 192.94 IT Services Provider (B) Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 540.00
345 192.28 Web-Service Provider Cluster Platform SL230s Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 1,204.80
346 191.89 IT Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.60GHz, 10G Ethernet 676.80
347 191.89 IT Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.60GHz, 10G Ethernet 676.80
348 191.89 IT Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.60GHz, 10G Ethernet 676.80
349 191.89 IT Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.60GHz, 10G Ethernet 676.80
350 189.51 ERDC ORC Copper - Cray XE6m-200, Opteron 6276 16C 2.300GHz, Cray Gemini interconnect 568.05
351 189.14 Energy Company (D) Cluster Platform SL230s Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 2,419.20
352 189.14 Energy Company Cluster Platform SL230s Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 691.20
353 189.14 Energy Company Cluster Platform SL230s Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 1,152.00
354 189.14 Energy Company (D) Cluster Platform SL230s Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 1,070.40
355 188.91 IT Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.60GHz, 10G Ethernet 903.60
356 188.91 IT Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.60GHz, 10G Ethernet 903.60
357 188.91 IT Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.60GHz, 10G Ethernet 855.00
358 188.91 Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 819.00
359 188.91 Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 819.00
360 188.91 Service Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, 10G Ethernet 772.20
361 188.67 IT Services Provider (D) Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 922.05
362 188.08 Cambridge University Darwin - Dell PowerEdge C6220, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband FDR 975.00
363 186.20 Internet Service xSeries x3650M2 Cluster Xeon QC, Xeon E5540 4C 2.530GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 526.10
364 186.20 Internet Service xSeries x3650M2 Cluster, Xeon QC E55xx 2.53 Ghz, GigE 526.10
365 185.87 NOAA/Oak Ridge National Laboratory Gaea C1 - Cray XE6, Opteron 6276 16C 2.30GHz, Cray Gemini interconnect 1,592.48
366 185.79 Service Provider xSeries x3550M3 Cluster, Xeon E5649 6C 2.530GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 770.50
367 185.77 Internet Service xSeries x3650M3 Cluster, Xeon E5649 6C 2.530GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 648.28
368 185.77 Internet Service xSeries x3650M3 Cluster, Xeon E5649 6C 2.530GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 612.61
369 185.77 Internet Service xSeries x3650M3 Cluster, Xeon E5649 6C 2.530GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 612.61
370 185.77 Internet Service xSeries x3650 Cluster, Xeon E5649 6C 2.530GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 707.25
371 185.77 Internet Service xSeries x3650M3 Cluster, Xeon E5649 6C 2.530GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 522.34
372 185.77 Internet Service xSeries x3650M3 Cluster, Xeon E5649 6C 2.530GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 522.34
373 185.77 Internet Service xSeries x3650M3 Cluster, Xeon E5649 6C 2.530GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 522.34
374 185.77 Internet Service xSeries x3650M3 Cluster, Xeon E5649 6C 2.530GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 522.34
375 185.77 Internet Service xSeries x3650M3 Cluster, Xeon E5649 6C 2.530GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 525.98
376 185.77 Internet Service xSeries x3650M3 Cluster, Xeon E5649 6C 2.530GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 525.98
377 185.71 University of Chicago Cray XE6 12-core 2.1 GHz 677.40
378 184.86 Korea Meteorological Administration Haeon - Cray XE6 12-core 2.1 GHz 1,711.60
379 184.86 Korea Meteorological Administration Haedam - Cray XE6 12-core 2.1 GHz 1,711.60
380 183.54 Cerner Corp. Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2650 8C 2.000GHz, 10G Ethernet 1,454.40
381 181.78 Financial Institution xSeries x3650M3 Cluster, Xeon X5650 6C 2.660GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 690.43
382 181.77 Service Provider xSeries x3650M3 Cluster, Xeon X5650 6C 2.660GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 626.08
383 181.77 Service Provider xSeries x3650M3 Cluster, Xeon X5650 6C 2.660GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 626.08
384 180.60 Shanghai Supercomputer Center Magic Cube - Dawning 5000A, QC Opteron 1.9 Ghz, Infiniband, Windows HPC 2008 1,000.00
385 178.58 IMM UrOAN Uran - ClusterPlatform SL390s/SL270s, Xeon X5675 6C 3.060GHz, Infiniband QDR, NVIDIA 2090 590.00
386 177.40 Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) JUROPA - Sun Constellation, NovaScale R422-E2, Intel Xeon X5570, 2.93 GHz, Sun M9/Mellanox QDR Infiniband/Partec Parastation 1,549.00
387 177.02 Government xSeries x3650M3 Cluster, Xeon X5670 6C 2.93 GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 546.26
388 175.78 System Integrator BladeCenter HS22 Cluster (WM), Xeon L5639 6C 2.130GHz, Infiniband 698.10
389 171.88 KTH - Royal Institute of Technology Lindgren - Cray XE6, Opteron 12 Core 2.10 GHz, Custom 1,380.07
390 171.17 Government Cray XE6 12-core 2.2 GHz 1,726.32
391 168.96 Computational Research Laboratories, TATA SONS EKA - Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c, Xeon X5365 4C 3.000GHz, Infiniband DDR 786.00
392 168.50 Center for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) PARAM Yuva - II - R2208GZ Cluster, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Infiniband FDR, Intel Xeon Phi 5110P 2,295.00
393 166.74 University of Colorado MRI - PowerEdge C6100 Cluster, Xeon X5660 2.8 Ghz, Infiniband 912.80
394 164.37 Science and Technology Facilities Council - Rutherford Appleton Laboratory EMERALD - Cluster Platform SL390s G7, Xeon E5649 6C 2.530GHz, Infiniband QDR, NVIDIA 2090 696.00
395 158.61 IT Services Provider Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8, Xeon E5-2660 8C 2.200GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 1,014.30
396 151.70 Universitaet Aachen/RWTH RWTH Compute Cluster (RCC) - Bullx B500 Cluster, Xeon X56xx 3.06Ghz, QDR Infiniband 1,449.12
397 150.71 Texas Advanced Computing Center/Univ. of Texas Lonestar 4 - Dell PowerEdge M610 Cluster, Xeon 5680 3.3Ghz, Infiniband QDR 1,670.78
398 148.48 INPE (National Institute for Space Research) Tup - Cray XE6, Opteron 6172 12C 2.10GHz, Cray Gemini interconnect 1,442.64
399 142.43 IT Services Provider Cluster Platform SL230s Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 1,104.00
400 142.43 IT Services Provider Cluster Platform SL230s Gen8, Xeon E5-2670 8C 2.600GHz, Gigabit Ethernet 1,104.00

* Performance data obtained from publicly available sources including TOP500